The invention of printing plays a role in the rise of the Protestant Reformation. This intra-Christian split impacts the Jewish communities of Europe. (53 min.)
In this lecture Dr. Neiman discusses:
- The Popes in Avignon
- Council of Pisa
- Renaissance Popes
- Leo X
- Luther and the Jews
- Pius IX
- Pius XI
From Dr. David Neiman’s notes:
The Popes at Avignon
(1305 – 1389)
Around the middle of the 13th century, beginning with the reign of Pope Innocent IV, the Papacy took a sharp downturn. The Popes became involved in political power conflicts, and fell from their position as impartial arbiters. They were fighting for political power in all of Italy and the members of the Curia were involved in diplomatic and financial actions which led to their neglect of religious functions.
The confllcts between the Emperors of Germany and the Kings of France were incessant, and the Popes lost political power without regaining their moral position. By the end of the 13th century they became virtually puppets of the French kings.
For a while the Popes retired to cities other than Rome to avoid the rioting and conflicts in the Eternal City; trying to rule from Viterbo, Orvieto, Perugia, and Anagni, among others; in effect, having no place that would afford them the tranquility required to serve a spiritual guides to the Christian world.
As between the German Hohenstaufens and Charles of Anjou, the Popes decided that they must support the ambitions of the French King and agree to the destruction of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty.
The election of the Pope at the end of the 13th century deteriorated into a civil war between the two powerful families of Rome; the Orsini and the Colonna.
Conflict between French and Italian Cardinals:
Urban VI (1378-1389), Italian, was elected Pope in Rome. The French Cardinals decided to elect another Pope, a French Cardinal, as Clement VII (1378-1394) who fled to Avignon to continue the French Papacy. Thus, from 1378 to 1394 there were two men each of whom claimed to be The Vicar of Christ on Earth. And each one had his College of Cardinals and a King or a city to support his claim. The Church was truly divided, with each Pope having the suppport of States that were opposed to the other. There were two Papal capitals; Rome and Avignon, two colleges of Cardinals, two Curial systems. France, Spain, and Naples supported Clement; Germany, England, Sweden, and Poland Supported Urban. St. Catherine of Siena supported Urban, St. Vincent Ferrer was for Clement.
The existence of two rival Popes was, to say the least, embarrassing to the Church and to the whole Catholic world.
How to solve the problem ?
A Council of the Church. The Council is superior to the Pope. But the Pope has to call the Council into session.This neither Pope was willing to do. There was a suggestion that they both simultaneously resign. This, they refused to do. When Urban died his Cardinals immediately elected another Pope to take his place, Boniface IX (1389 – 1404) thus continuing the standoff. When Clement died in 1394, his partisans elected a Spaniard, Pedro de Luna as Benedict XIII (1394 -1417). The struggle continued. The Italins elected Gregory XII (1406-1415)
The Council of Pisa (1409)
Attended by 24 Cardinals, 4 Patriarchs, 80 Bishops, representatives of
102 other Bishops who could not attend, heads of 4 religious orders, dozens of Abbots, Priors, Professors of Theology, Canon Lawyers, representatives of the leading Universities, representatives of Cathedral chapters.
The presiding Cardinal called upon the two rival Popes to resign.
Election of Alexander V who died before his coronation
Election of Baldassare Cossa, who took the name of John XXIII.
Now there were three Popes. Gregory XII, Benedict XIII and John XXIII
The Council of Constance of 1415
Deposition of John XXIII and Election of Martin V
Secular politics still prevailed
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) and the Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara
The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy 1861
The Conquest of Rome by Garibaldi and the Italians 1871
Edgardo Mortara became a Catholic Priest